1. PLANNED COURSE ADAPTATIONS/MODIFICATIONS
      2. Introduction
  1. PREFACE
      1.       • PCCG DEFINITIONS
  2. PLANNED COURSE CURRICULUM GUIDE (PCCG)
  3. PURPOSE AND INTENT
  4. DEFINITIONS

 
 


 
 
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 

PLEASANT VALLEY SCHOOL DISTRICT
Brodheadsville, Pennsylvania 18322
 



PLANNED COURSE ADAPTATIONS/MODIFICATIONS



Introduction
 

The instructional adaptations that follow are provided as suggestions to be implemented with all students, particularly with those in need of special education services including the gifted. This listing is in no way intended to be exhaustive. Rather, it is reflective of some major considerations in the area of curriculum adaptations/modifications.
 
 These instructional adaptations will work with any student, but are especially beneficial to those in need of learning support. Some may argue that these modifications are simply good teaching. Indeed, modifications of this type do represent good teaching. These principles of good teaching become instructional modifications whenever: (1) certain students in a particular class require such modifications above and beyond what is typically required by most students in that class and (2) without these modifications, these same students would not succeed.
 
 Assessment is an integral part of instruction reflecting student progress as well as achievement. Therefore, also included are
suggestions for assessment modifications.

§ Peer Support
§ Cooperative learning among peers
§ Modeling
§ Development of Information Organizer
§ Development of Graphic Organizer
§ Development of structured study guides
§ Student selection of instructional material (i.e., reading, writing, math)
§ Taped lessons
§ Copy notes (peer or teacher)
§ Student conferencing
§ Combine and vary modes of lesson presentation
§ Adjust language level to match the developmental and intellectual levels of students
§ Give examples. Let students practice doing examples first. Then assign tasks to be completed
§ Provide opportunity for guided and independent practice in a variety of situations
§ Limit number and length of directions
§ Have students repeat/review directions (i.e. peer to peer, student to teacher)
   

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PREFACE
 

 
 
 
Users and information seekers should familiarize themselves with the purpose and terminology of this Planned Course
Curriculum Guide (PCCG). We suggest that you first read the following:
 
 
            • PCCG PURPOSE AND INTENT



           • PCCG DEFINITIONS
 
 
  The PCCG specifies the unit lesson outcome, essential content, standards, activities, resources, and evaluation of student performance. This sector provides the means to initiate the learning activities to attain the program goal as identified in the course description and intent.
 
 The standards and outcomes are minimal expectations; further embellishment of the course is discretionary with the instructor depending upon the capability of the students.
 
 This PCCG is designed as an ACTIVE document capable of technological modification as required.
 
 The instructional delivery of this curriculum is quality controlled through the lesson plan development of the teacher.
 
 
 
               
 

 

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PLANNED COURSE CURRICULUM GUIDE (PCCG)

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PURPOSE AND INTENT
The Planned Course Curriculum Guide (PCCG) is a multi-purpose document:
    
All staff, particularly new teachers, can understand instructional expectations through the WRITTEN curriculum
A continuing district-wide instructional process and scope and sequence of subject matter are enhanced. The WRITTEN curriculum is delivered through the TAUGHT curriculum [instructional content and learning activities] and is evaluated through the TESTED curriculum [expected levels of student achievement - learning outcomes]
Priority student-centered outcomes are identified and attained through suggested learning activities and content designed to help insure a balanced and comprehensive basic curriculum
Essential content and course standards provide an efficient basis for selecting appropriate instructional materials and resources
         
Staff development areas for curriculum improvement are provided
The PCCG conforms with current Pennsylvania Department of Education curriculum regulations and serves the dual feature of providing both an administrative document and an instructional guide
Content and subject format remain flexible and adaptable to modification - an “active” document
Special Pennsylvania Department of Education [PDE] legislation is identified
Parents and students are provided with an overview of the instructional program and each course in particular
PLANNED COURSE CURRICULUM GUIDE (PCCG)

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DEFINITIONS
               
Course Description and Intent: a brief overview of the course and program goals
Instructional Time: frequency of class meetings and time/appropriate credit at the secondary level
Special Notes: emphatic features or highlights and identification of Department of Education mandates found in the course
Unit Lesson Outcome: describes the knowledge, skills, attitudes, student performance behaviors and areas of study that have been identified as appropriate to help the student attain the rigorous standards of a quality education
Teaching-Learning Activities: suggested activities designed to help all students achieve the learning outcomes and standards
Outcomes/Standards: statements establishing the minimal knowledge, skills, performance behaviors, and essential learning (content) a student must attain
Expected Levels of Achievement (Learning Outcomes): what students will be expected to do as a result of the application of teaching-learning activities and content
Evaluation Criteria (Actual Level of Attainment): student performance level achieved and measured through specified evaluation criteria
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 1
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Foundations of American Government.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
 
1.1
 
1.2
 
1.3
 
1.4
 
1.5
 
1.6
  1.7  
1.8
             
Mathematics
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
  2.9   2.10   2.11    
Science & Technology
 
3.1
 
3.2
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.8
  3.9          
Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.6
 
4.7
 
4.8
  4.9          
Civics & Government
 
5.1
 
5.2
 
5.3
 
5.4
                             
  Economics
 
6.1
 
6.2
 
6.3
 
6.4
 
6.5
                       
Geography
 
7.1
 
7.2
 
7.3
 
7.4
                             
History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             
Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.4
                             
Health, Safety & PE
 
10.1
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
10.5
                         
Family & Consumer Science
 
11.1
 
11.2
 
11.3
 
11.4
                             
World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 1      
       
·   Define the term, "state" and examine theories regarding its origin.
·   Define government and identify the societal needs it serves.
·   Discuss the purposes for which the American system of government was established.
·   Classify political systems according to the number of people who participate in the governing process, the geographic distribution of governmental power within the state, and the relationship between legislative and executive branches of government.
·   Describe differing forms of democratic systems of government.
·   Describe differing forms of authoritarian systems of government.
·   Describe the common heritage upon which the American democracy is based.
·   State the basic principles and values found in the Declaration of Independence.
·   Examine the ideological foundations of the United States Constitution.
·   Describe the organization of the federal Constitution and resulting structure of American government.
·   Identify the basic principles contained in the Untied States federal Constitution.
·   Discuss the formal and informal ways in which the Constitution has changed since 1789.
·   Define Federalism and explain why this form of government was chosen for the United States.
·   Specify how power is distributed within the federal government of the United States.
·   State the purpose of the National Supremacy clause.
·   Identify the characteristics of intergovernmental relations in the United States.
·   Identify the terms that define one's political ideology.
·   Define the term state in geo-socio-political terms.
·   Describe the rationale and purpose of government.
·   List and explain the six purposes of government as outlined in the Preamble to the United States Constitution.
·   List, define and differentiate among Aristotle's three general form of government.
·   Recognize general classifications and specific subtypes of government from descriptions.
·   Identify and distinguish between direct and representative democracies.
·   Distinguish between parliamentary and presidential forms of government.
·   Recognize and distinguish between the principal varieties of autocracies and oligarchies.
·   Be familiar with the relevant vocabulary.
·   Describe the common Anglo-American history on which the American government is constructed.
·   List the basic principles and values expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
·   Define natural law.
·   Define social contract.
·   Explain, compare, and contrast the philosophical contributions of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu to the Federal Constitution.
·   Diagram the tripartite system of American government.
·   List and define the five fundamental principles that form the United States Constitution.
·   Outline the procedure to amend the Federal Constitution.
·   Cite examples of features that would be classified as part of our "unwritten" Constitution.
·   Explain the principle of federalism and why this political arrangement was selected for the United States.
·   List the five types of governmental powers (delegated, enumerated, implied, reserved, concurrent) and provide examples for each.
·   Write an essay explaining the significance of the National Supremacy clause.
·   Explain the terms that describe one's political ideology and provide examples of beliefs representative of each position.
·   Be familiar with relevant vocabulary.
 
·   Have students speculate/debate what the United States would be like in the absence of government.
·   Complete a linear scale ranking governments with respect to personal freedom.
·   Invite a local government executive to discuss the functions of government.
·   Encourage students to keep track of the news media for issues as they relate to government.
·   Organize classes into cooperative learning groups and have them research world governments and determine to what general category and specific subtype they belong.
·   Have students analyze parliamentary and presidential forms of government and list the advantages and disadvantages associated with each.
·   Organize classes into cooperative learning groups and have them read excerpts from the writings of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu and have them find their expression in the Declaration of Independence and Federal Constitution.
·   Have students propose, debate, and ratify a constitutional amendment.
·   Have students debate alternatives to the present federal system of government.
·   Have students look for examples of political change in the news media and relate them to the political choices made by the framers of the United States Constitution.
·   Have students prepare a questionnaire and conduct a survey of other students, their families, or the community to gauge the political philosophy of the respondents .
·   Have students construct a "mind map" illustrating the facts, ideas and concepts important to the federal constitution.
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 2
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the American Political Process.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
 
1.1
 
1.2
 
1.3
 
1.4
 
1.5
 
1.6
  1.7  
1.8
             
Mathematics
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
  2.9   2.10   2.11    
Science & Technology
 
3.1
 
3.2
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.8
  3.9          
Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.6
 
4.7
 
4.8
  4.9          
Civics & Government
 
5.1
 
5.2
 
5.3
 
5.4
                             
Economics
 
6.1
 
6.2
 
6.3
 
6.4
 
6.5
                         
Geography
 
7.1
 
7.2
 
7.3
 
7.4
                             
History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             
Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.4
                             
Health, Safety & PE
 
10.1
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
10.5
                         
Family & Consumer Science
 
11.1
 
11.2
 
11.3
 
11.4
                             
World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 2      
       
·   Define political party, major parties, and coalition.
·   Explain the pivotal role parties play in democratic government.
·   List the important functions performed by parties in American politics.
·   Define "minor party, two-party system, single member district, plurality, pluralistic society, and consensus.
·   Identify factors that help to explain the existence of America's two party system.
·   Explain (a) what is a multi-party system, and (b) what is a one party system.
·   Define electorate, ideological parties, single issue parties, economic protest parties, and splinter parties.
·   List the major characteristics of the typical minor party in American politics.
·   Explain how minor parties have been important in the politics of the United States.
·   Define ward, precinct, split ticket voting.
·   Define political party.
·   Describe what political parties do.
·   Enumerate the most important functions performed by parties in American politics.
·   Explain the historical development of American political parties.
·   Recognize the strengths and weaknesses inherent in multi-party and one party systems.
·   Explain political party identifications as a function of socio-economic positions.
·   Cite examples of third parties in United States political history.
·   Identify the major characteristics of typical minor parties in American politics.
·   Explain the roles of minor parties in American politics.
·   Outline the reasons for the decline of political parties sine at lease the late 1960's.
·   Recognize the symbols of the major political parties in America.
·   Be familiar with the relevant vocabulary.
Have students generate a list of party headquarter, posters, billboards, and pamphlets they may have seen and candidate appearances of which they may be aware.
·   Record and analyze political party commercials with respect to ideology, target audience, traditional themes, etc.
·   Analyze or predict the future of the two party system.
·   Raise an issue close to student experience and have them take positions; form groups with students of similar persuasion as an illustration of the formation of political parties.
·   Provide a newspaper and have students look in it for references to political parties.
·   Have students, individually or cooperatively, research the positions of political parties on major issues.
·   Have students develop election scenarios taking into account the possible effects of a third party candidate in a presidential election.
·   Assign students or student groups to research one of the following minor parties: Anti-Masonic, Free Soil, American (Know Nothing), Prohibition, Greenback, Socialist Labor, Populist, Progressive (Bull Moose), Communist, State's Rights, Libertarian, or Patriot (Perot).
·   Have students develop a comprehensive campaign strategy for the candidate of their choice .
 
·   Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 3
 
The learner will develop an understanding of Congress as a National Political Institution.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
 
1.1
 
1.2
 
1.3
 
1.4
 
1.5
 
1.6
  1.7  
1.8
             
Mathematics
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
  2.9   2.10   2.11    
Science & Technology
 
3.1
 
3.2
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.8
  3.9          
Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.6
 
4.7
 
4.8
  4.9          
Civics & Government
 
5.1
 
5.2
 
5.3
 
5.4
                             
Economics
 
6.1
 
6.2
 
6.3
 
6.4
 
6.5
                         
Geography
 
7.1
 
7.2
 
7.3
 
7.4
                             
History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             
Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.4
                             
Health, Safety & PE
 
10.1
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
10.5
                         
Family & Consumer Science
 
11.1
 
11.2
 
11.3
 
11.4
                             
World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 3      
       
·   Describe the organization, function and operations of Congress.
·   Identify and discuss the powers of Congress.
·   Examine the powers denied to Congress by the Constitution.
·   Discuss the role of the committee system in Congress.
·   Examine the legislative procedures used by Congress.
·   Examine a profile of the members of Congress with respect to socio-economic status, ethnic background, religion and gender.
·   List the qualifications for the office of Representative.
·   List the qualifications for the office of Senator.
·   Examine how representation is determined in the House of Representatives and Senate.
·   Examine Congressional terms of office and election procedures.
·   Examine the major difference between the House of Representatives and Senate.
·   Specify the roles played by members of Congress in carrying out their responsibilities.
·   Identify the principal leadership positions in Congress.
·   Outline the benefits and privileges of members of Congress.
·   Examine the role of interest groups in the lawmaking process.
·   Examine the influences on legislative voting behavior (district, party, national interest, special interest, own conscience).
·   Identify the different constituencies represented by members of Congress.
·   Diagram the Legislative Branch of the Federal government.
·   Explain the function of Congress.
·   List and explain what is meant by delegated, enumerated, implied, reserved and concurrent powers.
·   List the exclusive powers of the House of Representatives and Senate.
·   Explain what the elastic clause and its relationship to the powers of the national government mean.
·   Identify powers denied to the national government.
·   Recognize key congressional committees, their role in the law making process and the importance of seniority in committee assignments.
·   Outline the steps in how a bill becomes a law and Presidential options.
·   Characterize the membership of Congress with respect to socio-economic status, ethnic background, religion and gender.
·   Identify which groups are under-represented in Congress.
·   Define the word, "constituency" and explain how legislators can have many different constituencies to satisfy.
·   List the three constitutional requirements for Representatives and Senators.
·   State the terms of office for members of the House of Representatives and Senate.
·   Explain how representation is determined in the House of Representatives and Senate and state the membership of each house.
·   Distinguish among apportionment, reapportionment and redistricting.
·   Compare and contrast the major differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate.
·   Name/identify the principle leadership positions in Congress.
·   Identify the duties of members of Congress.
·   List several privileges granted to members of Congress.
·   Explain the role of interest groups in the legislative process.
·   Recognize the influence of district, party, national interest, special interest and the legislator's own conscience on voting behavior .
·   Familiarity with relevant vocabulary.
Invite the local, state or federal legislator to speak to the class.
·   Organize students into cooperative learning groups and analyze state maps illustrating congressional districts before and after redistricting with respect to changes in representation in the House of Representatives, rural/urban divisions and gerrymandering.
·   Have students research their congressman or senator with respect to political party, year entered Congress, seniority within Congress and party, committee memberships and important issues.
·   Analyze news reports dealing with legislative action.
·   Interpret a primary source, such as a bill pending before Congress, and debate its merits.
·   Conduct a Senate or House debate simulation including the writing of the bill, through debate and floor vote with emphasis on learning the fundamentals of parliamentary procedure.
·   Conduct a class debate on the question of term limitations.
·   Collect and interpret political cartoons as they relate to Congress.
·   Evaluate political commercials in congressional elections.
·   Computer Project -- Consider the average ages of the leadership in the House and Senate. Relate the number of leaders from a given state, the percentage to the number of leaders -- the base -- to determine the percent of leadership from that state. Relate the population of the state -- a percentage -- to the population of the nation -- the base -- to see the percent of the population electing that leadership. (Use population figures from the year of the election. Consider the percent of the population voting that year.)
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 4
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Presidency as a National Political Institution.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11 Science & Technology
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Arts & Humanities
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Health, Safety & PE
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.213.313.4
 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 4      
       
·   Review the historical origins of the American Presidency and resulting constitutional compromises.
·   Examine presidential personalities and presidential power.
·   Examine presidential characteristics.
·   Examine the Constitutional requirements and term of office for the President.
·   Identify the roles of the President of the United States.
·   Summarize the powers of the President of the United States (Constitutional and by practice).
·   Describe the relationship between the President and the two other branches of the national government.
·   Explain the methods of presidential selection and succession.
·   Describe the presidential electoral process.
·   Examine presidential elections and the electoral college with respect to the idiosyncrasies of the electoral college.
·   Identify the agencies of the executive office of the President and discuss their duties and role in executive decision making.
·   Describe the roles and authority of Presidential cabinet members.
·   Examine the Constitutional amendments relevant to the Presidency.
·   Summarize the salary and benefits of the President.
·   Explain the qualifications, term of office, and role of the Vice President.
·   Be familiar with the relevant vocabulary.
·   Summarize/outline the history of the American presidency.
·   Distinguish between loose and strict constructionists.
·   Characterize American presidents with respect to age, state residency political party affiliation, religion and ancestry.
·   Explain hat is meant by a presidential system as distinguished from parliamentary systems.
·   List the constitutional requirements and term of office for the President.
·   Identify several roles of the President of the United States.
·   Name several important powers granted by the Constitution or practice to the President of the United States.
·   Explain the interdependencies among the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches of the federal government.
·   Diagram the order of presidential succession.
·   Explain/diagram the presidential electoral process.
·   Recognize the potential effect of significant third parties on the outcome of presidential elections.
·   Explain open and closed primaries, straight and split ticket voting.
·   Calculate a state's electoral vote given its Congressional representation.
·   List the primary agencies of the Executive Branch of government and their functions.
·   List the primary cabinet officers and their duties.
·   Summarize the content of the twentieth, twenty-second, twenty-third twenty-fifth and twenty -sixth amendments.
·   Be familiar with the relevant vocabulary.
Interpret political cartoons relevant to information studied on the Executive Branch.
·   Have students develop public opinion surveys to measure satisfaction with the President's job performance.
·   Analyze a primary source, such as the President's State of the Union Address.
·   Analyze political advertising used in Presidential elections, both print and television, with respect to propaganda techniques.
·   Organize classes into cooperative learning groups to act as political consulting firms advising presidential candidates with respect to issues and strategies.
·   Prepare and present reports on past presidential campaigns.
·   Prepare an present reports on presidential trivia.
·   Correlate changes in GNP during election years with whether the incumbent, regardless of party, won re-election.
·   Hold a class debate on the following resolution: "The electoral college should be abolished and the Presidency determined by direct popular vote."
·   Conduct a brainstorming session in which students list attributes of an "ideal" president.
·   Computer Project -- Conduct a real or mock presidential election using the computer as a voting machine which can produce instant, accurate results as the polls close. Computer can be programmed to analyze voting behavior by gender, age, and socio-economic factors.
·   Computer Project -- Use the differences in the percent of votes received by the winner and the loser in a presidential election as a rate and the number of voters actually voting as a base to determine the number of voters, the percentage deciding the election. Use that number as a percentage with the total population as a base to find the percent of the population that elected the President.
·   Computer Project -- Find the number of voters in your state, for a given election, to serve as a base. Use the difference in the numbers of votes received by each of the candidates as a percentage. If slightly more than half of that percent had voted for the losing candidate, your state's electoral votes would have shifted. Use that rate, with the state's population for that year, to determine the number of voters who made the difference.
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 5
 
The learner will develop an understanding and appreciation for the American System of Justice.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11 Science & Technology
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Arts & Humanities
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Health, Safety & PE
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 1
2.6 Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 5      
       
·   Describe the nature and function of law.
·   Discuss the history and sources of American law.
·   Identify the sources and limits of judicial power.
·   Examine the different types of law.
·   Summarize the court procedures followed in civil and criminal cases.
·   Describe sentencing options and guidelines.
·   Discuss rights and safeguards under the law.
·   Describe, examine the role of juries.
·   Discuss how the law is applied through legal procedures.
·   Describe the organization of the federal and state courts.
·   Discuss the administration and jurisdictions of the federal and state courts.
·   Describe how the Supreme Court is organized and how it decides cases.
·   State the tasks of the Supreme Court.
·   Identify the current members of the Supreme Court.
·   Discuss the role of the Supreme Court as policy maker.
·   Describe the function and organization of the Department of Justice.
·   Examine the adversary process of which American law is based and the trial process'
·   Examine the rules that govern the admissibility of evidence in court.
·   Give a capsulated explanation for why law is necessary in a civilized society.
·   Trace the Western European ancestry of American law.
·   Define civil, criminal, constitutional, common and statutory law.
·   Distinguish between civil and criminal proceedings with respect to the nature of the dispute, parties involved, procedures, and outcomes.
·   List the sentencing options available to the courts and the rationale behind them.
·   List the principle constitutional protections for persons accused of a crime.
·   Outline the major steps of criminal procedure in Pennsylvania.
·   Explain the functions of petit and grand juries.
·   Distinguish between substantive and procedural due process.
·   Diagram the federal judiciary.
·   Distinguish among state, federal, concurrent, appellate and original jurisdictions.
·   Explain the organization of the Supreme Court.
·   Critique the role of the Supreme Court.
·   Define judicial review.
·   Explain what the "adversarial process" means in the United States legal system.
·   List the primary steps in a trial and explain each .
·   Decide on the admissibility of evidence based on the general rules of relevance, reliability, and prejudice.
Conduct a legal mindwalk to illustrate how virtually all daily activities are directly or indirectly related to the law.
·   Have students make a list of ten thing they would rather be doing than studying about the law and then analyze the activities on their list to see how they are law related.
·   Have students report on cases reported in the media. They should identify type of case, legal issues, major parties, outcomes, etc.
·   Have students prepare a study sheet on the sources and limits of judicial power based on the language in Article III of the Federal Constitution.
·   Invite a local judge to address the class.
·   Arrange for local law enforcement officers to role-play a typical arrest simulation.
·   Arrange for a courtroom visit to witness a civil or criminal trial.
·   Invite the school solicitor to speak to the class on student rights.
·   Conduct a mock trial (civil or criminal case).
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 6
 
The learner will develop an understanding and appreciation for American Freedoms, Due Process, and Equal Protection.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11 Science & Technology
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Arts & Humanities
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Health, Safety & PE
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 6      
       
·   Examine the history and purpose of the American Bill of Rights.
·   Examine the scope of the liberties contained in the Bill of Rights and the concept of preferred position.
·   Differentiate between civil liberties and civil rights.
·   Describe the civil liberties granted by the first amendment to the Federal Constitution.
·   Specify the rights to due process inherent in the fourth amendment.
·   Specify the rights to due process inherent in the fifth amendment.
·   Specify the rights to due process inherent in the sixth amendment.
·   Specify the rights of due process inherent in the eighth amendment.
·   Examine how the freedoms contained in the Bill of Rights have been incorporated through the fourteenth amendment.
·   Describe how equal protection of the law is guaranteed for all persons within the fourteenth amendment.
·   Apply legal principles.
·   Recognize the competing interests in legal disputes.
·   Make reasoned judgments.
·   Trace the philosophical history behind the American Bill of Rights.
·   List the principle freedoms guaranteed in the first, fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments.
·   Explain the concept of preferred position.
·   Define/explain the establishment and free exercise clauses in the first amendment.
·   Define/explain the freedom of expression clauses in the first amendment.
·   Define the rights to assembly and petition.
·   Define due process of law.
·   Explain equal protection of the law.
·   Explain and apply the exclusionary rule.
·   Explain how the freedoms contained in the Bill of Rights have been incorporated through the fourteenth amendment.
·   Recognize due process violations of the law.
·   Identify legal issues and competing interests given a fact pattern.
·   Formulate arguments based on a given set of facts.
Have classes identify the "ideal characteristics" they would look for in a Justice to the Supreme Court.
·   Assign students to write concurring or dissenting opinions on cases of contemporary interest.
·   Divide classes into two groups to conduct simulations of Supreme Court hearings on cases of current interest (search and seizure, right to die, drug testing in the workplace, etc.).
·   Distribute unmarked (unidentified) Supreme Court decisions and have class determine which were the majority and dissenting opinions in a case the teacher has selected.
·   Have students prepare biographies of Supreme Court Justices analyzing their contributions and judicial philosophy.
·   Assign classes to debate the following propositions:
"The Supreme Court is the most powerful branch of the Federal Government."
"The Supreme Court should interpret the law and not usurp the Legislative powers of Congress."
·   Prepare reports on famous or landmark cases (individual or group presentations).
·   View a movie, such as "Gideon's Trumpet," or view and discuss any number of tapes with law subjects from the social studies video library.
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 7 - Economics
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Basic Economic Problem.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
 
1.1
 
1.2
 
1.3
 
1.4
 
1.5
 
1.6
  1.7  
1.8
             
Mathematics
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
  2.9   2.10   2.11    
Science & Technology
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.6
 
4.7
 
4.8
  4.9          

Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             
Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.4
                             
Health, Safety & PE
 
10.1
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
10.5
                         

Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
  Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                           

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 7      
       
·   Describe the conditions that give rise to the economic problem of scarcity.
·   Define opportunity cost.
·   Describe and give examples of comparative advantage.
·   Graph and interpret data.
·   Construct production possibility curves from sets of data.
·   Apply the concept opportunity cost to production possibility curves.
·   Identify the three questions every economic system must answer.
·   Define specialization and exchange.
·   Describe the characteristics of traditional, command, and free market economic systems.
·   Compare and contrast the different goals of the different economics.
·   Describe scarcity and why all economic resources are limited.
·   Define and explain economics.
·   List the four economic resources.
·   Graph a production possibility curve from a production possibility data.
·   Interpret a production possibility table/curve and determine opportunity cost and the law of increasing opportunity cost.
·   Compare and contrast the three fundamental economic systems.
·   List and define the three basic economic questions.
·   Utilize production possibility tables to explain the benefits of specialization.
·   Calculate a comparative cost.
·   Compare different production possibility tables to assess the advantages of specialization .
·   Critique the advantages of specialization.
Have the students do various exercises from the APIP (Advanced Placement Instructional Package from the Joint Council on Economic Education), pertaining to the objectives i.e. do you think like an economist? Types of economic systems, campus parking, etc.
·   Have the students discuss the school budget with the business manager as to operating expenses versus income in such areas as athletics, cafeteria, building supplies, etc. to assess the opportunity cost of select items.
·   Allocate $500.00 to each student as net income. he must develop a budget to meet his wants and needs. Either raise his income to $1,000.00 or lower his income to $250.00, re-budget, analyze the changes to judge the differences between needs or wants.
·   Divide the class into cooperative learning groups. have the students research an assigned country's economy to estimate the role of specialization in their respective productivity.
·   Invite a local businessman to discuss his role as an entrepreneur.
·   Show video "Economics USA: Resources and Scarcity: What Economics is All About".
·   Show video "Mrs. Peabody's Beach".
·   Show video "Free to Choose: The Power of the Market".
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 8 - Economics
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Nature and Functions of Markets.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
 
1.1
 
1.2
 
1.3
 
1.4
 
1.5
 
1.6
  1.7  
1.8
             

Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11
Science & Technology
 
3.1
 
3.2
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.8
  3.9          

Environment & Ecology
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Civics & Government
 
5.1
 
5.2
 
5.3
 
5.4
                             
Economics
 
6.1
 
6.2
 
6.3
 
6.4
 
6.5
                         
Geography
 
7.1
 
7.2
 
7.3
 
7.4
                             
History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             
Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.4
                             
Health, Safety & PE
 
10.1
 
10.2
 
10.3
 
10.4
 
10.5
                         
Family & Consumer Science
 
11.1
 
11.211.311.4
World Language
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
12.3
 
12.4
 
12.5
 
12.6
                     
Career Education & Work
 
13.1
 
13.2
 
13.3
 
13.4
                             

 

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 8      
       
·   Define demand and supply.
·  List and explain the determinants of demand and supply.
·   Define diminishing marginal utility and how it affects a downward sloping demand curve.
·   Define equilibrium.
·   Draw a graph of a demand and supply schedule from data.
·   Differentiate between a "change in demand or change in supply" and a "change in quantity demanded or change in quantity supplied".
·   Analyze the factors and situations that cause the demand and supply curves to shift.
·   Define price elasticity of demand.
·   Calculate elasticity by total revenue approach and elasticity of demand coefficient.
·   Explain how markets allocate resources.
·   Write a definition of price, demand, and supply.
·   Graph a demand curve from a demand schedule.
·   List and explain the non-price determinants of demand.
·   Define the law of demand.
·   Graph a supply curve from a supply schedule.
·   Define the law of supply.
·   Name and explain the non-price determinants of supply.
·   Record how changes in the non-determinants of supply and demand affect prices.
·   Calculate the elasticity of supply and demand.
·   Explain how markets allocate resources.
Have the students do various exercises from the APIP (Advanced Placement Instructional Package from the Joint council on Economic Education), pertaining to the objectives i.e. reasons for changes in demand, changes in supply and demand, applying elasticity to the real world, etc.
·   Have the students keep track of the news media for economic issues that are reported.
·   Have the student research the government's role in our economy, as to regulations, direct intervention, and sublime intervention.
·   Have the students develop a list of consumer products which have been "surprise" successes or failures, and assess the product's utility.
·   Have the students check the news media to examine prices of select items and compare them to the non-price determinants of demand and supply.
·   Have the students forecast the changes in supply and demand utilizing demographic information from the most recent census.
·   Have the students mock shop for select items during the length of the course to determine how prices change due to the non-price determinants.
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 2, Markets and Prices - Do They Meet Our Needs".
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 16, Supply and Demand - What Sets the Prices".
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 18, Economic Efficiency - What Price Controls".
·   Show video "Give & Take, Program 9, Market Prices".
 
·   Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 9 - Economics
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Theory of the Firm.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.4
 
2.5
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.8
  2.9   2.10   2.11    
Science & Technology
 
3.1
 
3.2
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.8
  3.9          
Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.6
 
4.7
 
4.8
  4.9          
Civics & Government
 
5.1
 
5.2
 
5.3
 
5.4
                             
Economics
 
6.1
 
6.2
 
6.3
 
6.4
 
6.5
                         
Geography
 
7.1
 
7.2
 
7.3
 
7.4
                             
History
 
8.1
 
8.2
 
8.3
 
8.4
                             

Arts & Humanities

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Health, Safety & PE

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Career Education & Work
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 9      
       
·   Describe the differences between a sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation.
·   Examine the advantages and disadvantages of each and the role it plays in our economy.
·   Define and graph all costs and revenues including marginal and averages.
·   Define and identify profit, loss, normal profit, supernormal profit, and shutdown point.
·   Distinguish between the short run and the long run and between short run costs and long run costs.
·   List the conditions that must be fulfilled if an industry is to be perfectly competitive.
·   Evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of a perfectly competitive price system.
·   Define pure monopoly.
·   Describe the demand curve for a product produced by a monopoly.
·   Describe the effects of pure monopoly on the price, quantity, allocation of resources, and efficiency.
·   Explain and analyze what is economically wrong with monopoly.
·   List the characteristics of monopolist competition.
·   Graph and identify the wastes of monopolistic competition.
·   Define oligopoly, and explain it's demand curve.
·   Describe how oligopolists utilize cost plus pricing .
·   Compare perfect competition with imperfect competition.
·   Record differences between a sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation.
·   Recall the important advantages and disadvantages of each a sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation.
·   Graph and analyze the various costs and revenues from data and tables.
·   Compare and contrast the different types of profit a firm can earn.
·   List and explain the factors and characteristics of a purely competitive firm.
·   Analyze and draw a pure monopoly's costs, revenue and demand curves.
·   Explain the problems a monopoly creates with its control of the market.
·   Compare and contrast a monopolistic competition firm in the short and long run with respect to profit and efficiency.
·   Analyze the oligopolists "kinked" demand and explain the factors, which contribute to it.
·   Compare and contrast the different types of firms in the market place.
Have the students do various exercises from the APIP (Advanced Placement Instructional Package from the Joint Council on Economic Education), pertaining to the objectives i.e. different types of market structures, marginal revenue, the monopoly case, monopolistic competition, etc.
·   Invite a local businessman in to your class to discuss his form of business. Have him discuss the advantages and disadvantages of it.
·   Have the students look for examples of business failures in the news media and relate them to the advantages and disadvantages of each.
·   Have the students research a private and a public monopoly, in their cooperative learning groups, to become aware of the similarities and differences.
·   Have the students search the news media for graphic information on costs, revenues, and profits concerning one of the market structures.
·   Conduct a survey of all the local businesses in the area to discover the types of firms that are the most numerous and why.
·   Create our own corporation following the guidelines established by the State of Pennsylvania, Department of Commerce.
·   Play the "Stock Market Game" through Lehigh University to give the students hands on demonstration of the workings of the stock market.
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 15, The Firm-How Can It Keep Costs down?"
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 17, Perfect Competition and Inelastic Demand-Can the Farmer Make a Profit?"
·   Show video "Give and Take, Program 12, Why Competition?"
 
·   Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 10 - Economics
 
The learner will develop an understanding of the Framework of Product Markets and Factor Markets.

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11 Science & Technology
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3
 
4.4
 
4.5
 
4.64.74.8 4.9
Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Arts & Humanities
 
9.1
9.29.39.4
Health, Safety & PE

10.110.210.310.410.5
Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Career Education & Work
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 10      
       
·   Describe the differences between product and factor markets.
·   Define marginal physical product and marginal revenue product.
·   Construct a marginal revenue product schedule in a perfectly competitive and imperfectly competitive market.
·   State the rule employed by a firm to determine the least cost combination of resources and utilize this rule to find the least cost combination from given data.
·   Examine the major assumptions of the marginal productivity theory.
·   Define economic rent, and explain what determines the amount of economic rent paid.
·   Explain the functions of profit in the American economy.
·   Identify the differences between the types of "markets".
·   Write a definition of marginal physical product and marginal revenue product.
·   Draw a marginal revenue schedule and explain why it changes between a perfect competition and imperfect competition.
·   Explain and analyze the factors governing the least cost combination of resources.
·   List and compare and contrast the basic assumptions of the marginal productivity theory.
·   Explain economic rent and how the price is determined for each factor of production.
·   Write an essay explaining the effects profits have on the American economy.
Have the students do various exercises from the APIP (Advanced Placement Instructional Package from the Joint Council on Economic Education), pertaining to the objectives i.e. Firm in the Middle, The Only Game in Town, How Big are Profits, The Demand for Labor, etc.
·   Divide the class into two teams, labor and management and play the game simulation, "Settle or Strike." The students must utilize collective bargaining principles to negotiate a labor contract.
·   Have the students debate why a farmer earns about 1/100 of that of a NFL player, and who is more important for our society.
·   Have the students analyze the Pleasant Valley Collective Bargaining Agreement to determine teachers wages in reference to rent.
·   Show video "Economics USA Program 22, Labor and Management - How do They dome to Terms".
·   Show video "People on Market Street, Film 6, Wages and Production."
·   Show video "Give & Take, Program 5, Where do Jobs Come From?"
Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

 
Subject Title: HISTORY
 
Discipline/Grade Level:
 
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, LAW AND ECONOMICS -- GRADE 12
UNIT LESSON OUTCOME: 11 - Economics
  
The learner will develop an understanding of the Role of Government in our economy.  

 
RELATIONSHIP TO PA OUTCOMES/STANDARDS (Check Appropriate Graduation Outcomes)
Communications
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mathematics
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10  2.11 Science & Technology

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Environment & Ecology

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Civics & Government
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Geography
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 History
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Arts & Humanities
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Health, Safety & PE
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Family & Consumer Science
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 World Language
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Career Education & Work
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

 
ESSENTIAL CONTENT OUTCOMES/STANDARD
 
CONTENT & INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES WITH CORRECTIVES AND EXTENSIONS (Individually created teaching activities may be used to achieve the standards; however, listed below are activities which may be helpful:
ACTUAL LEVEL OF ATTAINMENT (EVALUATION CRITERIA) ASSESSMENT
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
STANDARD 11      
       
·   Define public goods and the characteristics and necessity of such goods.
·   Develop a rationale for determining which goods should be produced by the private sector and those by the public sector.
·   Develop a criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of government programs.
·   Analyze the effectiveness of government policies designed to remedy problems caused by externalities.
·   Define progressive, regressive, proportional taxes, and tax incidence.
·   Develop criteria for evaluating the fairness of a tax.
·   Compare and contrast the characteristics of public goods and private goods.
·   Recognize and record the differences between effect government programs and ineffective ones.
·   Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages among the various taxes.
·   Write the requirements of a fair tax.
Have the students do various exercises from the APIP (Advanced Placement Instructional Package from the Joint Council on Economic Education), pertaining to the objectives i.e. Third Party Costs and Benefits, Acid From the Sky, What is a Fair Tax, etc.
·   Have the students read selected portions of "The Budget in Brief," and report to the class on the effectiveness of budgetary expenditures on selected topics.
·   Have the students debate on a balanced budget amendment to force the government into fiscal responsibility.
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 21, Pollution - How Much is a Clean Environment Worth?"
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 26, Public Goods and Responsibilities - How Far Should We Go?"
·   Show video "Economics USA, Program 24, Reducing Poverty - What Have We Done?"
 
·   Textbook designed worksheets that demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Teacher designed assignments to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts taught
·   Teacher designed projects, research papers, and essays to demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Oral presentations which demonstrate knowledge of concepts taught
·   Note taking skills and maintaining a notebook that contains the information on the concepts taught
 
   

 

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